The book also furthers the other Pakistani narrative. By blaming the start of jihadism on American and Saudi support for mujahideens fighting the Soviet military in Afghanistan, Pakistan’s use of militants is portrayed as a benign tactic employed in Afghanistan, and only since the late 1980s in Kashmir. Scholars like Sumit Ganguly have shown that supporting jihad has been the principal means by which the Pakistani state has sought to ensure security for itself — from its initial use of tribal forces during the 1948 Kashmir war to its current support for a range of jihadi organisations in the region.

There is, however, little realisation that the very conditions that made Pakistan’s jihadi policy useful in the past now threaten the very survival of Pakistan. US announcement from Delhi of a $10-million bounty on Hafiz Saeed is dismissed as brinkmanship, “seen as a direct assault on the Pakistani security establishment for its alleged support of the LeT and Hafiz Saeed”; the Pakistan arm