This article was first published in Deccan Chronicle.
Last week, multiple news outlets reported that the website housing NRC data had gone offline. Reportedly, this happened because a cloud services contract procured by Wipro on behalf of the State government of Assam was not renewed and thus, turned off due to non-payment. For now, officials have made assurances that the data itself is safe. Some aspersions have also been cast on former state officials working on the NRC project. This is still a developing story and there are multiple conspiracy theories being floated about the root-cause ranging on a spectrum from malintent to negligence and good old-fashioned incompetence.
From a public policy perspective, there are multiple questions that come up — should the state be contracting with private enterprise? How accountable should the state be when there is a loss of data or harm caused to people by accumulating this data? How much data should the state gather about its citizens and the potential for misuse? Let’s look at them starting from the narrowest question and then expanding outwards.
AWS V/S MEGHRAJ One of the reasons for outrage has been the use of Amazon Web Services to host this site especially when the National Informatics Center (NIC) itself offers a cloud service called ‘MeghRaj’. The concern cited is that the data may leave the country, or that private contractors will potentially be able to access sensitive data. It is almost cliched to say that the Internet has no borders, but this distinction is important. Data is not any safer just by virtue of it being in India and at a state-operated facility. On the contrary, it is probably better for a website and its data to be hosted with industry-leading operators that follow best-practices and have the expertise to efficiently manage both operations and security. One must consider both the capacity and role of the state in this context. What is the market failure that the state is addressing by offering cloud hosting services in a market where the likes of Amazon, Google, and Microsoft operate?
The objection regarding contractor access to sensitive information is important and merits further consideration. To a large extent, this can be addressed by a contractual requirement to restrict access to individuals with security clearances. Yes, this brings the dimension of a principal-agent problem and lax enforcement of contract law in India. But it is important to contrast it with the alternative — an individual representing the state, where the principal-agent problem is even more acute. As things stand, there are still options to hold a private entity accountable for violation of contract, but there is a lower probability of punitive action against an individual representing the state for harm arising out of action/inaction on their part. As far as causes for outrage go, the fact that the data was stored with AWS should not be one. There are larger aspects at play here.
STATE ACCOUNTABILITY This incident brings with itself a much larger question on the accountability the Government should have towards data. The Indian government keeps a substantial amount of personal and sensitive data on its citizens. For example, data on how much gas you consume, your physical address, the model, make, and the number of your car as well as how many times you traveled out of the country in the last 10 years. That is more sensitive information than most companies in the private sector hold.
Keeping this (and the social contract) in mind, how accountable should the government be? According to the draft of the Personal Data Protection Bill, not very. Section 35 of the bill allows the Government to exempt whole departments from the bill, removing checks and balances that should exist when the Government acts as a collector or processor of your data.
How does that make sense? Why should the state be any less accountable than a private enterprise? In fact, the Government has sold the data of its citizens, without their consent (~25 crore vehicle registrations and 15 crore driving licenses) to the private sector for revenue. As of now, it is hard to conclude whether the incident occurred due to malintent, negligence, or incompetence. But regardless of the cause, it brings with itself a lesson. The Government and all its departments need to be more responsible and be held more accountable when it comes to the data they store and process.
IMPLICATIONS OF A DATA-HUNGRY STATE A case can be made that the state is not a monolith and there exist certain barriers and redundancies due to which databases in the Government do not talk to each other… yet. Chapter 4 of the 2018-19 Economic Survey of India envisioned data as a public good and advocated “combining … disparate datasets.” The combination of limited state capacity, lack of accountability, and a hunger for data can be a dangerous one. While capacity can be supplemented by private enterprise, there is no substitute for accountability. In such a scenario it is extremely important to consider, understand, debate the chronology, implications, and potential for misuse before going ahead with such large-scale activities that could end up severely disrupting many millions of lives.
Section 35 of the draft Personal Data Protection Bill allows the government to exempt whole departments from the Bill, removing checks and balances that should exist when the government acts as a collector or processor of your data.
(The writers are research analysts at The Takshashila Institution All views are the author’s own and are personal.)