Through the decades of reform and opening up, the impulse of nationalism dominated popular ideological discourse. It, along with economic performance, served as the key pillars shoring-up the Party’s legitimacy. Two events were decisive in shaping this direction. The first was the Tiananmen Square crisis of 1989, which threatened the Party’s ruling legitimacy. The second was Deng Xiaoping’s 1992 Southern Tour, which signalled an end to internal jostling over the direction of economic policy. Growth at any cost would now become the primary policy driver for the Party. This subsequent patriotic education campaign, of course, had a key role to play in this process too, along with key domestic and international developments.
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