A Transatlantic Pakistan Policy

A German Marshall Fund and Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) report, A Transatlantic Pakistan Policy, was published on November 20, 2014. It was co-authored with John Rydqvist, Andrew Small, and Daniel Twining. The summary of recommendations are included below, and the full text can be accessed here.

Summary of Recommendations

Nuclear Proliferation
• Highlight the dangers posed by Pakistan’s nuclear development — specifically its development of tactical nuclear weapons — through official public statements, and help define clearer incentives for Pakistan to adopt a more stabilizing nuclear posture.
• Insert and elevate the discussion of Pakistan’s nuclear program in bilateral and multilateral dialogues with regional and global partners, particularly China.
• Further strengthen export controls for sensitive and dual-use technologies.

• Establish a clearer division of labor between the United States, the European Union, and NATO, including by assigning a concrete role to the European Union.
• Focus more thoroughly in a transatlantic setting on understanding the implications of Pakistan’s continued support for militant proxies in order to advance its national security.
• Engage in a deeper transatlantic dialogue about how Pakistan’s support of militancy, including possibly by carrying out a joint military project that examines the strategic meaning and instrumentality of insurgencies in a new world order.
• Facilitate Afghanistan-Pakistan cooperation on counterterrorism, with the objective of better tracking militancy in the region, and improving law enforcement and customs procedures.
• Make a more focused and cohesive effort to support wider police reform.
• Use Malala Yousafzai’s Nobel Peace Prize to further raise public awareness about Pakistan’s complicated web of militant, insurgent, and Islamist entities and what they mean for the country, region, and international community.

Civil-Military Relations and Governance
• Invest narrowly, but systematically, in key areas like energy supply and education, rather than spread Western public investments thinly across such a range of sectors and actors.
• Expand U.S. and European funding for Pakistan’s public education system, but tie this assistance directly to curriculum reform.
• Invest in strengthening the Pakistani parliament’s standing committees, and an expanded program of education and training of the Pakistani judiciary.
• Invest systematically in media training, including through exchanges for members of the Pakistani print and broadcast media, and expand media outreach into Pakistan directly through Western public broadcasters.
• Hold the government accountable for human rights abuses that are within its power to mitigate, including by imposing standards of conditionality on assistance programs

Economic Development
• Support and actively shape the new wave of regional infrastructure initiatives — and new economic entities such as the Chinese-led AIIB — rather than advancing the perception that these are competing with the West’s own efforts.
• Utilize economic influence, bilaterally and multilaterally, to bolster the civilian government’s efforts to advance the more politically difficult aspects of the connectivity agenda, particularly vis-à-vis India.
• Use the withdrawal from Afghanistan as an opportunity to reposition the West’s relationship with Pakistan around realizing its potential as an emerging market.